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charnames
define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes

charnames - define character names for C<\N{named}> string literal escapes


NAME

charnames - define character names for \N{named} string literal escapes


SYNOPSIS


  use charnames ':full';

  print "\N{GREEK SMALL LETTER SIGMA} is called sigma.\n";

  use charnames ':short';

  print "\N{greek:Sigma} is an upper-case sigma.\n";

  use charnames qw(cyrillic greek);

  print "\N{sigma} is Greek sigma, and \N{be} is Cyrillic b.\n";

  print charnames::viacode(0x1234); # prints "ETHIOPIC SYLLABLE SEE"

  printf "%04X", charnames::vianame("GOTHIC LETTER AHSA"); # prints "10330"


DESCRIPTION

Pragma use charnames supports arguments :full, :short and script names. If :full is present, for expansion of \N{CHARNAME} string CHARNAME is first looked in the list of standard Unicode names of chars. If :short is present, and CHARNAME has the form SCRIPT:CNAME, then CNAME is looked up as a letter in script SCRIPT. If pragma use charnames is used with script name arguments, then for \N{CHARNAME} the name CHARNAME is looked up as a letter in the given scripts (in the specified order).

For lookup of CHARNAME inside a given script SCRIPTNAME this pragma looks for the names


  SCRIPTNAME CAPITAL LETTER CHARNAME

  SCRIPTNAME SMALL LETTER CHARNAME

  SCRIPTNAME LETTER CHARNAME

in the table of standard Unicode names. If CHARNAME is lowercase, then the CAPITAL variant is ignored, otherwise the SMALL variant is ignored.

Note that \N{...} is compile-time, it's a special form of string constant used inside double-quoted strings: in other words, you cannot use variables inside the \N{...}. If you want similar run-time functionality, use charnames::vianame().

For the C0 and C1 control characters (U+0000..U+001F, U+0080..U+009F) as of Unicode 3.1, there are no official Unicode names but you can use instead the ISO 6429 names (LINE FEED, ESCAPE, and so forth). In Unicode 3.2 (as of Perl 5.8) some naming changes take place ISO 6429 has been updated, see ALIASES. Also note that the U+UU80, U+0081, U+0084, and U+0099 do not have names even in ISO 6429.

Since the Unicode standard uses ``U+HHHH'', so can you: ``\N{U+263a}'' is the Unicode smiley face, or ``\N{WHITE SMILING FACE}''.


CUSTOM TRANSLATORS

The mechanism of translation of \N{...} escapes is general and not hardwired into charnames.pm. A module can install custom translations (inside the scope which uses the module) with the following magic incantation:


    use charnames ();           # for $charnames::hint_bits

    sub import {

        shift;

        $^H |= $charnames::hint_bits;

        $^H{charnames} = \&translator;

    }

Here translator() is a subroutine which takes CHARNAME as an argument, and returns text to insert into the string instead of the \N{CHARNAME} escape. Since the text to insert should be different in bytes mode and out of it, the function should check the current state of bytes-flag as in:


    use bytes ();                       # for $bytes::hint_bits

    sub translator {

        if ($^H & $bytes::hint_bits) {

            return bytes_translator(@_);

        }

        else {

            return utf8_translator(@_);

        }

    }


charnames::viacode(code)

Returns the full name of the character indicated by the numeric code. The example


    print charnames::viacode(0x2722);

prints ``FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK''.

Returns undef if no name is known for the code.

This works only for the standard names, and does not yet apply to custom translators.

Notice that the name returned for of U+FEFF is ``ZERO WIDTH NO-BREAK SPACE'', not ``BYTE ORDER MARK''.


charnames::vianame(name)

Returns the code point indicated by the name. The example


    printf "%04X", charnames::vianame("FOUR TEARDROP-SPOKED ASTERISK");

prints ``2722''.

Returns undef if the name is unknown.

This works only for the standard names, and does not yet apply to custom translators.


ALIASES

A few aliases have been defined for convenience: instead of having to use the official names


    LINE FEED (LF)

    FORM FEED (FF)

    CARRIAGE RETURN (CR)

    NEXT LINE (NEL)

(yes, with parentheses) one can use


    LINE FEED

    FORM FEED

    CARRIAGE RETURN

    NEXT LINE

    LF

    FF

    CR

    NEL

One can also use


    BYTE ORDER MARK

    BOM

and


    ZWNJ

    ZWJ

for ZERO WIDTH NON-JOINER and ZERO WIDTH JOINER.

For backward compatibility one can use the old names for certain C0 and C1 controls


    old                         new

    HORIZONTAL TABULATION       CHARACTER TABULATION

    VERTICAL TABULATION         LINE TABULATION

    FILE SEPARATOR              INFORMATION SEPARATOR FOUR

    GROUP SEPARATOR             INFORMATION SEPARATOR THREE

    RECORD SEPARATOR            INFORMATION SEPARATOR TWO

    UNIT SEPARATOR              INFORMATION SEPARATOR ONE

    PARTIAL LINE DOWN           PARTIAL LINE FORWARD

    PARTIAL LINE UP             PARTIAL LINE BACKWARD

but the old names in addition to giving the character will also give a warning about being deprecated.


ILLEGAL CHARACTERS

If you ask by name for a character that does not exist, a warning is given and the Unicode replacement character ``\x{FFFD}'' is returned.

If you ask by code for a character that does not exist, no warning is given and undef is returned. (Though if you ask for a code point past U+10FFFF you do get a warning.)


BUGS

Since evaluation of the translation function happens in a middle of compilation (of a string literal), the translation function should not do any evals or requires. This restriction should be lifted in a future version of Perl.

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