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MIDI::Score
MIDI scores

MIDI::Score - MIDI scores


NAME

MIDI::Score - MIDI scores


SYNOPSIS


  # it's a long story; see below


DESCRIPTION

This module provides functions to do with MIDI scores. It is used as the basis for all the functions in MIDI::Simple. (Incidentally, MIDI::Opus's draw() method also uses some of the functions in here.)

Whereas the events in a MIDI event structure are items whose timing is expressed in delta-times, the timing of items in a score is expressed as an absolute number of ticks from the track's start time. Moreover, pairs of 'note_on' and 'note_off' events in an event structure are abstracted into a single 'note' item in a score structure.

'note' takes the following form:


 ('note_on', I<start_time>, I<duration>, I<channel>, I<note>, I<velocity>)

The problem that score structures are meant to solve is that 1) people definitely don't think in delta-times -- they think in absolute times or in structures based on that (like 'time from start of measure'); 2) people think in notes, not note_on and note_off events.

So, given this event structure:


 ['text_event', 0, 'www.ely.anglican.org/parishes/camgsm/chimes.html'],

 ['text_event', 0, 'Lord through this hour/ be Thou our guide'],

 ['text_event', 0, 'so, by Thy power/ no foot shall slide'],

 ['patch_change', 0, 1, 8],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note_off', 192, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note_off', 192, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note_off', 192, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note_off', 96, 0, 1, 0],

 ['note_on', 0, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note_off', 192, 0, 1, 0],

here is the corresponding score structure:


 ['text_event', 0, 'www.ely.anglican.org/parishes/camgsm/chimes.html'],

 ['text_event', 0, 'Lord through this hour/ be Thou our guide'],

 ['text_event', 0, 'so, by Thy power/ no foot shall slide'],

 ['patch_change', 0, 1, 8],

 ['note', 0, 96, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 96, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 192, 96, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note', 288, 192, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note', 480, 96, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 576, 96, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note', 672, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 768, 192, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 960, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 1056, 96, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 1152, 96, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note', 1248, 192, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note', 1440, 96, 1, 20, 96],

 ['note', 1536, 96, 1, 27, 96],

 ['note', 1632, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 1728, 192, 1, 25, 96]

Note also that scores aren't crucially ordered. So this:


 ['note', 768, 192, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 960, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 1056, 96, 1, 25, 96],

means the same thing as:


 ['note', 960, 96, 1, 29, 96],

 ['note', 768, 192, 1, 25, 96],

 ['note', 1056, 96, 1, 25, 96],

The only exception to this is in the case of things like:


 ['patch_change', 200,     2, 15],

 ['note',         200, 96, 2, 25, 96],

where two (or more) score items happen at the same time and where one affects the meaning of the other.


WHAT CAN BE IN A SCORE

Besides the new score structure item note (covered above), the possible contents of a score structure can be summarized thus: Whatever can appear in an event structure can appear in a score structure, save that its second parameter denotes not a delta-time in ticks, but instead denotes the absolute number of ticks from the start of the track.

To avoid the long periphrase ``items in a score structure'', I will occasionally refer to items in a score structure as ``notes'', whether or not they are actually note commands. This leaves ``event'' to unambiguously denote items in an event structure.

These, below, are all the items that can appear in a score. This is basically just a repetition of the table in the MIDI::Event manpage, with starttime substituting for dtime -- so refer to the MIDI::Event manpage for an explanation of what the data types (like ``velocity'' or ``pitch_wheel''). As far as order, the first items are generally the most important:

('note', starttime, duration, channel, note, velocity)
('key_after_touch', starttime, channel, note, velocity)
('control_change', starttime, channel, controller(0-127), value(0-127))
('patch_change', starttime, channel, patch)
('channel_after_touch', starttime, channel, velocity)
('pitch_wheel_change', starttime, channel, pitch_wheel)
('set_sequence_number', starttime, sequence)
('text_event', starttime, text)
('copyright_text_event', starttime, text)
('track_name', starttime, text)
('instrument_name', starttime, text)
('lyric', starttime, text)
('marker', starttime, text)
('cue_point', starttime, text)
('text_event_08', starttime, text)
('text_event_09', starttime, text)
('text_event_0a', starttime, text)
('text_event_0b', starttime, text)
('text_event_0c', starttime, text)
('text_event_0d', starttime, text)
('text_event_0e', starttime, text)
('text_event_0f', starttime, text)
('end_track', starttime)
('set_tempo', starttime, tempo)
('smpte_offset', starttime, hr, mn, se, fr, ff)
('time_signature', starttime, nn, dd, cc, bb)
('key_signature', starttime, sf, mi)
('sequencer_specific', starttime, raw)
('raw_meta_event', starttime, command(0-255), raw)
('sysex_f0', starttime, raw)
('sysex_f7', starttime, raw)
('song_position', starttime)
('song_select', starttime, song_number)
('tune_request', starttime)
('raw_data', starttime, raw)


FUNCTIONS

This module provides these functions:

$score2_r = MIDI::Score::copy_structure($score_r)
This takes a reference to a score structure, and returns a reference to a copy of it. Example usage:

          @new_score = @{ MIDI::Score::copy_structure( \@old_score ) };

$events_r = MIDI::Score::score_r_to_events_r( $score_r )
($events_r, $ticks) = MIDI::Score::score_r_to_events_r( $score_r )
This takes a reference to a score structure, and converts it to an event structure, which it returns a reference to. In list context, also returns a second value, a count of the number of ticks that structure takes to play (i.e., the end-time of the temporally last item).

$score2_r = MIDI::Score::sort_score_r( $score_r)
This takes a reference to a score structure, and returns a reference to a sorted (by time) copy of it. Example usage:

          @sorted_score = @{ MIDI::Score::sort_score_r( \@old_score ) };

$score_r = MIDI::Score::events_r_to_score_r( $events_r )
($score_r, $ticks) = MIDI::Score::events_r_to_score_r( $events_r )
This takes a reference to an event structure, converts it to a score structure, which it returns a reference to. If called in list context, also returns a count of the number of ticks that structure takes to play (i.e., the end-time of the temporally last item).

$ticks = MIDI::Score::score_r_time( $score_r )
This takes a reference to a score structure, and returns a count of the number of ticks that structure takes to play (i.e., the end-time of the temporally last item).

MIDI::Score::dump_score( $score_r )
This dumps (via print) a text representation of the contents of the event structure you pass a reference to.


COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 1998-2002 Sean M. Burke. All rights reserved.

This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself.


AUTHOR

Sean M. Burke sburke@cpan.org

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