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Document styles and layout processing

OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles - Document styles and layout processing


OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles - Document styles and layout processing


This class is designed to handle styles, whether automatic or named, contained in styles.xml or content.xml. It inherits from the common OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath class and brings style-focused features.

This class should not be explicitly used in an ordinary application, because all its features are available in the OpenOffice::OODoc::Document class, in combination with other features. Practically, the present manual is provided to describe the style processing features of OpenOffice::OODoc::Document (knowing that these features are technically supported by the OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles component of the API).

Remember that named styles are those that the end user can see and edit using through the GUI of an interactive office software (for ex. the Stylist tool in

Such styles usually have meaningful names and are stored in the styles.xml member. But an OpenDocument-compliant style may own two names, so-called 'name' and 'display-name'. The 'display-name' is the name as it's displayed by the office software, while the 'name' is the main identifier. Both are displayable character strings, but they often differ. For a given 'display-name', the application software is allowed to set any arbitrary 'name'. For example, with 2, the well-known pre-defined style whose display name is ``Text body'' is named ``Text_20_body'' (the space character is replaced by its hexadecimal value between two ``_'' characters). In the other hand, the 'name' and the 'display-name' generally don't differ when they contain letters and/or digits only. Remember that the 'name' (and not the 'display-name') is the main identifier of a style element. So, such a method as getStyleElement(``style name'') uses the 'name' attribute to retrieve a style descriptor and, in case of failure, it attempts to retrieve the same element by 'display-name' (unless you change this behaviour through the 'retrieve_by' document property).

Care should be taken particularly with predefined base styles in These styles are described in styles.xml just like named styles, but they appear to the end user with localised names (in their local language), so the really displayed style name is neither the 'name' nor the 'display-name' stored attributes. For example, in the French distribution of, the ``Text body'' style appears as ``Corps de texte'', while its ``display-name'' is ``Text body'' and its ``name'' is ``Text_20_body''. This localization is hard-coded in the office software for a few predefined style, and it's not stored in the file. However, this is not a problem for user-defined styles as the stored display-name is exactly the same as the effective display name.

There are also numerous ``automatic'' styles in a document which are created implicitly by the office application each time a particular set of presentation attributes is given to an element, but where no named style is referenced. Automatic styles which apply to the document body are stored in content.xml (but in an XML element isolated from the content). An automatic style's name can change randomly each time the document is edited or saved in Applications which access automatic styles will not want to indicate them using ``hard-coded'' names. The best way is to retrieve each automatic style via an object that is known to use it. Using a ``hard-coded'' name is all right for styles created by a program (the createStyle() method requires it), but such a name should only be considered to be stable for the duration of the session. If you want a program-created style name to be then respected by, you must create it as a named style. This is no more complicated, but it is better to avoid making hundreds of styles visible to the user that they do not need to see.

There are some structural differences between the old 1.0 format and the new OASIS OpenDocument (ODF) one. A few of these differences aren't made fully transparent by OpenOffice::OODoc. So, in some cases, a program including style definitions or updates doesn't produce exactly the same results with both OOo 1 and ODF documents.

Some styles are more complex than others as they describe the page layout. These styles can themselves contain text and images. A page style, or a ``master page'', can actually define a header, a footer, margins, and a background.

Headers and footers can contain text and images which can otherwise be handled by OODoc::Text and OODoc::Image.

A background contains a colour and can also include a background image (several methods are possible).

Presentation of these objects is itself controlled by styles.

All of this leads to the conclusion that it is not enough just to associate each content element with a style. In reality, document styles form a rather complex network of interdependencies.

As for page styles, the OpenDocument format contains a concept which must be understood in order to use some of the following methods. By virtue of the principle of separation of content and presentation, the definition of a page style is based on two distinct objects: ``master page'' and ``page layout''. A ``master page'' object encompasses any page style content (i.e. the content of headers and footers) and links to a ``page layout'' object which describes page presentation characteristics (with large numbers of parameters from page dimensions to background colour to footnote separator size, etc.). Names which appear in the list of page styles in are actually names of ``master pages''. However, to work with physical aspects of the presentation, you have to access the associated ``page layout''.

To complicate matters, there are also header and footer styles. Each object contained in a header or footer (e.g. paragraph or image) has a style. The number and range of styles are much larger that you would imagine just looking at the style management tool in any office software. Up to a point, OODoc::Styles methods make life easier for you by masking some of this complexity.

In OODoc::Styles methods, styles are normally indicated by their logical names (which must be unique), but, except where otherwise stated, they can also be indicated by their style element reference as well. Moreover, when a method is expecting a page layout as an argument but the programmer passes it a master page instead (whether by design or by mistake), it ``knows'' in most cases how to automatically select the associated page layout.

OODoc::Styles allows the applications to create new styles, and not only to update existing styles. However, defining a style requires a great many attributes. Some appear in code examples in this manual, but for a full list of possible attributes for each style, you must refer to the OpenDocument specification. As a consequence, building styles from scratch by program is not a recommended practice. It's much more easy to create documents which all the needed styles through an ODF-compliant office software, and to use them as templates in the programs, knowing that it's very easy to retrieve an existing style, to copy it and to re-use it (as is or customised) in new documents.

OODoc::Styles module is designed to allow applications to manipulate any style and even create new ones. It is not recommended, however, to use it to create a presentation entirely from code. Here again, it is better to start from document templates which already contain at least a blank of each required style.


Constructor : OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles->new(<parameters>)

        Short form: ooStyles(<parameters>)

        See OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath->new.

        Returns an OODoc::XPath OpenDocument connector with additional

        style-aware features.


        The member loaded by default is "styles.xml" which gives access to

        named or automatic styles associated with the page layout. The

        "content.xml" member should be forced if the application is to work

        with styles associated with the document body (automatic styles


backgroundImageLink(page [, link])

        Allows you to check the background image's link (if found) for the

        page style given as the first argument. If another link is given as

        the second argument, it replaces the existing link.

        See imageLink in OODoc::Image about links. Put more simply, a link

        is the address of the graphics file which corresponds to the

        physical content of the image. Even though the background image

        belongs to the "page layout", the first argument can also be either

        a "master page" or a "page layout".

        If the second argument "link" is given, its value replaces the

        existing link in the same way as with imageLink.



                ("Standard", "";);

        If the page did not have a background image before the call, one is

        created. It must, however, be an external linked image (as in the

        above example), unless the link represents the internal address of

        an already loaded image. This method does not itself carry out any

        physical import of an image.

        See also importBackgroundImage.

createMasterPage(name, options)

        Creates a new page style. Options are:

            'layout'    => page layout name

            'next'      => next master page style name

        The association with a "page layout" allows you to associate a

        layout to the page. Otherwise the page will have a default layout.





                        layout  => 'pm1',

                        next    => 'Standard'


        See the OpenDocument specification (or the 'Organizer' tab in the

        "Format/Page" dialog box of if you want to know what

        a "Next Style" is. The optional "next" parameter simply gives the name

        of a "master page", which can be the one you are currently creating.

createPageLayout(name, options)

        Creates a new layout style (page layout) which can be used by a page

        style (master page). Options are the same as for updatePageLayout.

createPageMaster(name, options)

        See createPageLayout()

createStyle(name, options)

        Creates a new style of any type or class (depending on options) and

        returns its reference if successful.

        The first argument indicates the new style name which must be unique

        in the document. By default, a check is automatically done; the method

        fails and produces a warning if the style already exists. However,

        no check is done if a 'check' option is provided and set to 'false'.

        Avoiding the uniqueness check can improve the 


        If the external name of the style, as it could be made visible for the

        end-user through an OpenDocument-compliant editing software (such as, is not the same as the internal name, it may be set

        through a 'display-name' option. Without this option, the display name

        is the same as the internal name.

        If the active OODoc::Styles object is associated with a document

        content (content.xml), the new style is always taken to be an

        automatic style. If associated with the styles.xml member, the new

        style is considered to be a named style by default. However, the

        category => 'automatic' option (or category => 'auto') allows you to

        specify it as an automatic style. Please note: in the case of

        content.xml, the "category" option is ignored as all styles are

        automatic in this member.

        By default, the method stores a style in the form of an XML element

        "style:style" (which corresponds to the most commonly used content

        styles). Some style elements are indicated in a different way. The

        "namespace" and "type" options are available for this. If, for

        example, you want to create a footer configuration style (called

        "text:footnote-configuration" in the specification),

        you will have to specify the "footnote-configuration" type

        explicitly in the "text" namespace using one of the following two


            namespace           => 'text',

            type                => 'footnote-configuration'

        The possible options are:

            namespace           => namespace

            type                => style type

            family              => style family (text, paragraph, ...)

            class               => style class

            parent              => parent style (inherit)

            next                => next style

        If other style "organisation" attributes (often for links to other

        styles) prove to be needed but are not on the above list, they must

        be grouped together in a hash provided by the application and

        indicated by a "references" option.

        Of course, if you create a new style, you do not just specify it into

        terms of type, class or family, etc. You attribute its own

        presentation attributes which can be inherited by other styles which

        cite it as "parent". These personal attributes (whose nature obviously

        depends on the style type) are all attributed by the "properties"

        attribute which itself is a hash provided by the application.

        Here is an example of a paragraph style creation




                family  => 'paragraph',

                parent  => 'Standard',

                properties =>


                        'fo:margin-left'        => '2cm',

                        'fo:margin-right'       => '1.5cm',

                        'fo:text-align'         => 'justify',

                        'fo:background-color'   => '#ffff00'



            $doc->setStyle($doc->getParagraph(3), "P3");

        This sequence gives paragraph 3 of the document a special style

        whose properties are given margins, text justification and a

        yellow background color (note that the ODF color codes are in RGB

        hexadecimal preceded by a '#', and 'ffff00' is the RGB value for

        for the yellow color). This is done using a style called "Colour"

        (reusable later for other paragraphs) based on the "Standard" style. 

        The names of the properties can be found in the ODF specification

        (some of them come from the Form Object standard, so they begin with

        the "fo:" prefix). However, the given properties are related to the

        global layout of the paragraph. We could provide this new style with

        additional properties related to the text content of the paragraph.

        But, in a paragraph style definition, the "text" properties are not

        stored in the same logical area than the "paragraph" properties, and

        we can't set both in the same instruction. Fortunately, we can enrich

        any existing style at any time through the updateStyle() method:




                properties =>


                        -area                   => 'text',

                        'style:font-name'       => 'Times',

                        'fo:font-size'          => '14pt',

                        'fo:font-weight'        => 'bold',

                        'fo:font-style'         => 'italic',

                        'fo:color'              => '#000080'



        This new sequence gives paragraph 3 (or any paragraph using the

        "Colour" style) a lovely Times font in dark blue size 14 bold italics.

        The '-area' parameter which appears in the 'properties' hash is not

        a property; it's a selector which instructs the API to select the

        "text" property set.

        Note: the hexadecimal color codes used in the example could be

        replaced by more user-friendly color names, according to a standard or

        application-specific RGB color table, through the odfColor() function

        introduced in the present manual chapter.

        If the '-area' selector is omitted, the property set whose name is

        the name of the style family (i.e. 'paragraph' in the last example).


        The '-area' selector is silently ignored when used with OOo 1

        documents, and sometimes required for ODF, so you can safely use it if

        you want to write portable code. In addition, up to now, the unknown

        style attributes are simply ignored by the software,

        and they don't harm. However, if the document is later edited and

        saved through, every unknown attribute is removed. As a

        consequence, everybody can use proprietary (non-OpenDocument) style

        attributes for application-specific markup.

        Another example:




                family  => 'graphics',

                parent  => 'Graphics',

                properties =>


                        'style:vertical-pos'    => 'from-top',

                        'style:horizontal-pos'  => 'from-left',

                        'style:vertical-rel'    => 'page',

                        'style:horizontal-rel'  => 'page',

                        'draw:luminance'        => '4%',

                        'draw:contrast'         => '2%',

                        'draw:gamma'            => '1.1',

                        'draw:transparency'     => '5%',

                        'draw:red'              => '-3%',

                        'draw:green'            => '2%'



        The "Photo1" style defined above is of course an image style i.e. in

        the "graphics" family, based on the parent graphics style

        "Graphics". Any images to which this style will be applied will have

        coordinates which relate to the upper left edge of the page measured

        from top to bottom and left to right. They will be presented with an

        increase in luminosity of 4% and contrast of 2%, gamma correction of

        1.1 and 5% transparency. Moreover, 3% less red and 2% more green

        will freshen the image and highlight the vibrancy of the

        chlorophyll. There are yet more in the list of options.

        Note: In the given examples, "namespace" and "type" are not specified

        because the default namespace and type are appropriate here. (Rest

        assured that this is often the case when working with text styles.)

        So, while OpenOffice::OODoc supports both OOo 1 and ODF with the

        same API, the present version can't completely hide the differences

        between the two formats. However, the program's logic can hide these

        differences for the end-user, because it can know the format of

        the current document (see isOpenDocument in OpenOffice::OODoc::XPath).

        Defining a style can be made a lot easier by reusing an already

        existing style than by creating it programmatically. The simplest way

        is by inheritance using the "parent" option, but the link to "parent"

        creates a permanent dependency (any further changes in the parent will

        affect the children). OODoc::Styles offers another possibility: copy

        the properties of an existing style, without creating a link to a

        parent, using the "prototype" option. This option points to another

        style whose properties are then taken up and combined with the new

        properties. New properties prevail over old ones if the new

        properties replace existing attributes in the prototype style, just

        like when they are inherited. But there is no persistent link from the

        new style to its prototype.





                prototype       => "Colour",

                properties      =>


                        'fo:font-size'  => '16pt'



        This new style called "Bigger" is an exact copy of the previously

        defined "Colour" style, except for the font size.

        The given "parent" style is not necessarily defined yet and, if the

        current document member is "content", it can be the name of a style

        defined in the "styles" member. (See getAncestorStyle() and


        Generally speaking, explicit parameters passed by an application

        (e.g. font size) prevail over prototype's parameters.

        The prototype parameter can be a style name (as in the above

        example) or a style element. If it's an element, its origin doesn't

        matter (it can be a copy of a style element previously extracted from

        another document). If it's a name, the prototype style is retrieved

        either in the current document (default) or, if the 'source' option

        is provided, in another document.


        The value of the 'source' option is another OODoc::Styles (or

        OODoc::Document) object. If this option is provided, createStyle

        looks in the indicated document for the prototype style. If 'source'

        is provided without 'prototype', the prototype style is supposed to

        have the same name as the style to be created.


        If you want to create a style called "MyStyle", for example, in

        document $doc1 which imitates a style called "HisStyle" in document

        $doc2 (where both documents are OODoc::Styles or OODoc::Document

        objects), you can do the following:




                        prototype       => "HisStyle",

                        source          => $doc2



        but if you write





                        source          => $doc2



        the local style "MyStyle" is built as a copy of the so-named style

        in the source document (it's a direct import).


        Whatever the origin of the prototype style, any property can be

        set or redefined in the new style.

        Not only can you import styles available in other documents, but

        you can also create automatic styles in a 'content' member which

        are derived from named styles found in the 'styles' member and


        WARNING: The "prototype" option can produce unexpected results if

        the two documents are not in the same format. As a consequence,

        using an OOo 1 style as the prototype of an OpenDocument one (and

        vice-versa) should be avoided.

        Always be careful of dependencies. There are often dependencies

        between styles. An application must be wary of importing styles with

        directly or indirectl dependencies on other styles which will not be

        available in the target document. Text styles are fairly easy to

        control in this way, but table, page and graphic styles, for example,

        have more complex dependencies.

        When a font name is set (generally through a 'style:font-name'

        text property) in a new style, take care of the availability of

        the corresponding font declaration in the document. A font is not

        rendered if it's not declared (see importFontDeclaration()).


        See the OpenDocument specification (chapter 14, "Styles") for a

        complete list of possible attributes for each type of style.

        However, creating sophisticated styles from scratch is *not*

        recommended; remember the most easy (and the less error-prone) way

        consists of creating template documents through the

        GUI (or any other ODF-compliant office software) and using them as

        style libraries.

exportBackgroundImage(page [, destination])

        Exports the graphics file which corresponds to the background image

        of a page style where the image exists and is internal to the archive. (A linked image is obviously not exportable

        since it is not actually present in the document.) See the

        exportImage method in OODoc::Image for export details.



                ("First Page", "C:\Images\backgrnd.jpg");


        Returns the name of the primary known ancestor of the given style.

        If the style has a standalone definition (i.e. it's its own ancestor),

        the method returns it's own name.

        This method returns the ancestor name as it's known in the current

        document space. The genealogy is not followed out of the scope of

        the current XML member.


        For example, if we have an automatic paragraph style "P1", defined in

        the "content" member and derived from "Text body", the returned

        ancestor name will be "Text body". However, "Text body" itself could

        be a derivative of "Standard". But "Text body" is defined in the

        "styles" member, so its definition (including the name of its parent

        style) is out of the scope.

        As a consequence, in a regular ODF document, there are 2 possible


        - if the current space is "styles", the returned style name is really

        the name of the primary ancestor, because a style defined in this

        space can't inherit from anything elsewhere;

        - if the current space is "content", the returned value can be the

        name of a style defined elsewhere.

        A possible check is a simple call to getStyleElement() with the

        returned ancestor name. If getStyleElement() returns undef, then

        the ancestor style is not defined in the current space (and, if

        needed, we could reach it the "styles" member, if we currently work

        with the "content" member).

        Beware: the returned name is the main name (identifier), and not the

        display name.

        See also getParentStyle().


        Returns a list of automatic style elements in the current document.

        By default, only "style" type elements in the "style" namespace are

        returned. You can select special styles using the "namespace" and

        "type" options.

        For example, if you want to get a list of number styles (namespace

        "number", type "number-style"), do it like this:

            my @styles = $doc->getAutoStyleList

                (namespace => 'number', type => 'number-style');


=head3  getAutoStyleRoot()

        Returns the element that contains all the automatic style elements.


        See also getNamedStyleRoot().


        Returns the attributes of the given page style's background image

        (if any), in the form of a hash (attribute => value).


        Returns the element reference of the given page style's background

        image (if found).


        Returns the given default style's attributes (if any). Default

        styles are generally "paragraph" and "graphics". See also



        Returns the default style element's reference given by its logical


        A default style describes default values assigned to certain

        attributes of a given style family.

        For example, to get the default paragraph style of a document, use:

            my $def_para = $doc->getDefaultStyleElement("paragraph");


        Returns the font declaration element corresponding to the given font

        name, or undef if the font is not declared in the current document.




                unless ($doc->getFontDeclaration("Times New Roman"))


                        $doc->importFontDeclaration($doc2, "Times New Roman");


        See also importFontDeclaration().

getFooterParagraph(masterpage, number)

        In a text document, returns a footer paragraph's reference, if the

        master page has a footer and the paragraph exists. Arguments are

        master page and paragraph number.


        Caution: the first argument can't be a page number, knowing that

        printable pages are dynamically created by the office software and

        don't exist in the stored document.

getHeaderParagraph(masterpage, number)

        Like getFooterParagraph, but for a header.


        Returns a master page element reference whose logical name is given,

        or undef if the page style is not found. You can also pass an

        element reference instead of a name. In this case, the method's role

        is simply to check if the element is indeed a master page type. If

        so, it returns the argument as is. If not, it returns undef.


        Look at the DESCRIPTION part of the present manual chapter for a few

        explanations about master pages (and, of course, feel free to dig in

        the OpenDocument specification for details).


        This method should preferently be used on the 'styles' member; it

        doesn't generally make sense with the 'content' member, knowing that

        the master pages are generally described as named styles.


        Returns a list of master styles in the current document. By default,

        the list contains the master page elements.


        Other kinds of styles may be retrieved, according to the 'namespace'

        and/or 'type' options (see getStyleElement()). But the search space

        is limited to the master styles area, whatever the type and the


        Like getMasterPageElement(), this method makes more sense on 'styles'

        members than on 'content' ones.


=head3  getMasterStyleRoot()

        Like getNamedStyleRoot(), but the returned element contains the

        master style descriptors instead.


        Returns a list of named styles in the current document, using the

        same options as for getAutoStyleList. By definition, in documents this list should be empty in all elements

        except styles.xml.


=head3  getNamedStyleRoot()

        Returns the root element of the named styles area. In other words,

        this method retrieves the element that contains all the named style

        elements, with the exception of the master styles.


        This element could be, for example, copied from a document to another

        one in order to use exactly the same named styles (user-defined or

        provided with the office software) in both.


        Returns the outline style descriptor related to the given outline

        level. The returned element is available for subsequent get/set

        operations using getAttributes(), setAttributes(), and so on.


        See also updateOutlineStyle().


=head3  getPageLayoutAttributes(page)

        Returns the description of a page layout. The argument can be

        either a page layout directly or a master page style which

        refers to it.

        The structure of returned data is a hash of hashes. It contains four

        elements, each of which is a hash. As follows:

            - "references": style reference attributes with at least its

            name and possibly its links to other styles.

            - "properties": background description (dimensions, orientation,

            margins, colour, etc.).

            - "header": presentation attributes for the header.

            - "footer": presentation attributes for the footer.

            - "footnote-sep": footnote separator attributes.

            - "background-image": background image attributes.

        Attributes are displayed according to specifications.


        See getPageLayoutAttributes()


        Returns the page layout element reference from a search argument

        which can be either a logical name or a page style reference. If the

        argument is a master page, the method returns the corresponding page



        See getPageLayoutElement()


        Returns the name of the parent of the given style, or undef if the

        style has a standalone definition (without inheritance). The returned

        name, if any, is the identifier of the parent style, which can differ

        from its display name.

        The returned parent name can be the name of a style defined elsewhere

        (or not defined yet).

        See also getAncestorStyle().


        Returns a style's description (other than a page style) given as a

        logical name or reference.

        The structure of returned data is a hash of hashes. It contains the

        two following elements:

            - "references": style reference attributes with at least its

            name and possibly its links to other styles (either its family,

            parent style, class and/or next style).

            - "properties": description of the presentation characteristics

            for this style (and which depend on the type of object the style

            is applied to).

        Remember that this structure can be used directly by an application

        to create or update another style.

getStyleElement(style [, options])

        Returns a style element's reference using its name.

        If the first argument is already an element reference, it returns

        the argument if it is indeed a style element, and undef if not.

        By default, the style name is sought amongst "style" type elements

        in the "style" namespace. If an application is looking for a special

        style (e.g. page or number), then it can pass the optional

        parameters "namespace" and/or "type". See the section on createStyle

        for these concepts.

        A search is of course limited to automatic styles if the current XML

        document is "content". If the document is "styles", the search for the

        name is made in all styles by default. You can, however, limit it

        with the "path" parameter where "path" equals "auto" to search in

        automatic styles or "named" in named styles.


        The name is a mandatory property, and the main identifier of any style

        in ODF-compliant documents. But an additional property, so-called

        'display-name', is sometimes provided by the applications. The

        'display-name' property, if provided, is made visible for the end user

        by the office software (for example in the stylist box of while the primary name is hidden. By default,

        getStyleElement() looks for a style whose primary name matches the

        given name, then, if the query fails, it tries to retrieve the style

        according to its display name. However, if the "retrieve_by" property

        of the connector is set to 'display-name', the display name becomes

        the preferred identifier.

        If a "retry" parameter is provided and set to "false" or any other

        value than "1" or "true", no double query is done. In other words,

        if the first query (by primary name or by display name, according to

        the value of the "retrieve_by" property of the connector) fails, the

        method returns immediately without trying any other query. The default

        value is "1" (true). You should set it to "0" or "false" in order to

        save some computation time if, for example, your application doesn't

        need to take care of the possible differences between display names

        and internal names.


        Combines the results of getAutoStyleList and getNamedStyleList (same


importBackgroundImage(page, filename [, link])

        Imports a background image into the given page style from an

        external file.

        The page style can be either a page layout or a master page. An

        optional link can be inserted (e.g. to reuse an existing link). See

        backgroundImageLink or imageLink (in OODoc::Image) for information

        about links. Otherwise, an internal link under "Pictures/" is

        created by default and takes the name of the source file.

        Returns the link if found, undef if not.

        Caution: the actual import is not made until a save is called (see

        importImage in OODoc::Image).

importFontDeclaration(doc, fontname)


        In the first form, retrieves a font declaration in another document

        and installs it in the current document. The first argument is a

        OODoc::Styles or OODoc::Document object.




                my $source = ooDocument


                        file => "source.odt", member => "styles"


                my $target = ooDocument


                        file => "target.odt", member => "styles"


                $target->importFontDeclaration($source, "Helvetica");


        In the second form, the single argument is the XML string

        containing a font declaration.

        The following example creates a declaration for the "Comic Sans MS"

        font in an OpenDocument:




                    '<style:font-face '                         .

                        'style:name="Comic Sans MS" '           .

                        'svg:font-family="Comic Sans MS"        .




        This last import feature is not mainly provided in order to encourage

        raw XML coding! Be careful, the XML font declaration syntax is not

        exactly the same with the two supported document formats. This feature

        should be used in order to import previously exported font declarations

        (see exportXMLElement in OODoc::XPath).   


        A font declaration must be imported if it's used in a newly

        created style and not currently available in the target document.

masterPageExtension(page, extension_type [, element])

        This method allows the user to get or set an extension to an existing

        master page. The most used extensions are "header", "footer",

        "header-left", "footer-left", but any other key could be provided

        (warning: there is no ODF-compliance check, so any application-

        specific tag is allowed, knowing that any provided keyword will be

        automatically prefixed by "style:" in the generated XML).


        See masterPageFooter(), masterPageFooterLeft(), masterPageHeader(),

        masterPageHeaderLeft(); these methods can be regarded as synonyms

        for masterPageExtension() with the four listed extension types.


=head3  masterPageFooter(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's footer element reference (master

        page) or undef if not found.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the

        footer. If the footer does not exist, it is created.

masterPageFooterLeft(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's footer left element reference (master

        page) or undef if not found.


        A "footer left" element can be used to specify different content for

        left pages, if appropriate. Unless a footer left element is defined

        in the master page, the content of the footers on left and right pages

        is the same.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the

        footer. If the footer does not exist, it is created.


=head3  masterPageHeader(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's header element reference (master

        page) or undef if not found.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the

        header. If the header does not exist, it is created.


=head3  masterPageHeaderLeft(page [, element])

        Returns the given page style's header left element reference (master

        page) or undef if not found.


        A "header left" element can be used to specify different content for

        left pages, if appropriate. Unless a header left element is defined

        in the master page, the content of the headers on left and right pages

        is the same.

        If the second argument is a content element, it is added to the

        header. If the header does not exist, it is created.

pageLayout(master_page [, page_master])

        Returns or modifies the layout of a given page style (master page).

        If the second argument is given, it replaces the old page layout value

        (i.e. it changes the layout of the page without changing the header or

        footer content.

pageMasterStyle(master_page [, page_master])

        See pageLayout()

removeStyleElement(style [, options])

        Deletes the given style. The argument and options are the same as

        for getStyleElement. The method returns "True" (1) if successful or

        undef if the style is not found.

selectStyleElementByFamily(family [, options])

        Returns the first (or only) available style in the given family

        (using the "family" attribute), or undef if not found. Options are

        the same as for getStyleElement.


            my $style = $doc->selectStyleElementByFamily



                        type    => 'default-style'


        selects the element which describes the default graphic style.

        This method is useful for selecting styles whose "family" attribute

        is their identifier (and which do not have a "name" attribute). For

        example, this is the case for default styles where there is normally

        a default style for the "paragraph" family and another for the

        "graphics" family. In the above example, we used the "type" option

        where the type is "default-style" and not "style". We did not use

        the "namespace" option because it would be pointless to know that

        the default style namespace is just the default namespace ("style").

selectStyleElementsByFamily(family [, options])

        Like selectStyleElementByFamily but returns a list of elements which

        belong to the given family. The "family" argument is treated as a

        regular expression, so an application must therefore give the

        appropriate meta-characters if the search is to be limited to the

        exact family name.

selectStyleElementsByName(name [, options])

        Returns a list of styles whose names match the first argument (which

        is treated as a regular expression). Options are the same as for the

        other selectStyleElementsXXX methods.

setBackgroundImage(page, options)

        Inserts or replaces a background image in a page style. The "page"

        argument points either to the page layout directly, or to the master

        page to which it refers. Options point to the graphics object and

        how it is presented. The returned value is the created or modified

        background image's element reference (see


        You should first indicate the graphics file which contains the image

        and whether it will merely be linked to the page by reference, or if

        it has to be physically imported into the file. To

        "link" the image, you supply its address using the "link" option. To

        import it, you supply the image using the "import" option.




                "First page",

                import          => "C:\Images\Logo.jpg"




                "First page",

                link            => "C:\Images\Logo.jpg"


        These two calls produce the same effect, but the second only inserts

        a link to the image.

        Remember that if by error an application supplies both the "link"

        and "import" options, the "import" option is the one that prevails.

        The other options control the import of images as backgrounds. By

        default, OODoc::Styles installs the image in the center without

        tiling and with an automatic update-on-load attribute if the image

        is by external link. You can choose other options using the standard vocabulary.

        To link a background image which is stretched to fit the entire

        page, use the following:



                "First page",

                link            => "C:\Images\back.jpg",

                'style:repeat'  => 'stretch'


styleName(style_element [, name])

styleName(name [, options])

        The first form checks that the given argument is indeed a "style"

        element reference and, if it is, returns its name (undef if not). If

        a name is given as the second argument, it replaces the style name.

        In the second form, the current style name is given. In this case,

        and without any other arguments, the method only checks if the given

        name is indeed a style and returns a positive result (undef if not).

        It is still possible to change its name using this form, by using

        the "newname" option. With this form, some other options allow you

        to choose the namespace, type and category (automatic or named).

        These options are "namespace", "type" and "category" (see

        getStyleElement for these concepts). Without these parameters, the

        default values are the same as for getStyleElement.

        Beware: the only recognized style name here is the main style name,

        which can differ from the display name.

styleProperties(style [, options])

        This method is for checking and updating the formatting properties

        of a given style.


        It is more limited than updateStyle, but easier to code. The

        styleProperties method accesses only the style's formatting

        attributes and does not touch its references, such as its name, class

        or family (see getStyleAttributes).

        With no options, the current style's properties are simply returned

        in the form of a hash in which the keys are attributes belonging to

        the standard vocabulary and which depend on the type

        of object. The same data structure can be used to modify a style's

        properties by passing options as a hash. This structure is the same

        as the sub-hash "properties" of getStyleAttributes or updateStyle.


        If you wanted to redo the style we called "Colour" (see createStyle),

        for example, changing the colour of the characters to red and

        replacing the italics with standard font, you could do it as follows:




                        '-area'         => 'text',

                        'fo:color'      => odfColor("red"),

                        'fo:font-style' => undef


        This short sequence sets the "fo:color" attribute to red and clears

        the "font-style" attribute. Remember that in RGB notation, the

        quantity of red is given by the first two hexadecimal digits, which

        here are set to maximum, and by setting the green and blue to zero.

        The "font-style" attribute had previously been set to "italic".

        Here, the 'area' option is neutral if the document format is OOo,

        but it must be set to 'text' for an ODF document, because all that

        is related to characters belongs to the 'text' area in a paragraph

        style (see below).

        styleProperties returns all the style's properties but only modifies

        those that have been set using options. To clear an existing

        property without giving it a new value, you must pass the

        corresponding option giving it a null value.

        If the current document is an OASIS Open Document, an additional

        "-area" option should be provided, because a style's properties may

        be stored in logical parts. For example, in a paragraph style, some

        properties apply to the paragraph itself, while some other ones apply

        to its text content (and some text properties can have the same name

        as some paragraph properties). The default value is the name of the

        style family. For example, if the style family is "paragraph", the

        "paragraph" part is selected by default. Because it updates font

        attributes (that are text properties), the example above couldn't

        work against an Open Document without an additional "area" option

        with the appropriate value:




                        '-area'         => 'text',

                        'fo:color'      => "#ff0000",

                        'fo:font-style' => undef


        After creating a new paragraph style in an Open Document, this method

        should be used in order to set the properties which have not been set

        by createStyle because of the separation in two areas. In the

        following example, the 'paragraph' properties are directly set with

        createStyle, then the 'text' properties are set with styleProperties:


                my $style = $doc->createStyle



                        family          => 'paragraph',

                        parent          => 'Standard',

                        properties      =>


                                '-area'                 => 'paragraph',

                                'fo:text-align'         => 'center',

                                'fo:margin-left'        => '0.5cm',

                                'fo:margin-right'       => '0.5cm'





                        $style, '-area' => 'text',

                        'fo:color'              => oo2rgb("blue"),

                        'fo:font-weight'        => 'bold',

                        'style:font-name'       => 'Times New Roman'



        Note: According to the OASIS OpenDocument v1.0 specification,

        any arbitrary custom attribute could be created in anyone of the

        style's properties area, and *should* be preserved by conforming

        applications when editing the document. However, up to now, any

        custom property is lost as soon as the document is edited through


        The "-area" option is silently ignored with OOo 1 documents.


=head3  switchPageOrientation(page)

        Switches a portrait page to landscape and vice-versa.

        The argument is a page style (page layout or master page).

        'portrait' and 'landscape' are not style properties. The logic of

        this method is very simplistic: it makes a swap between the height

        and the width of the page.

        CAUTION: don't try to give a page number as the argument. This

        method apply on a page style (i.e. master page) and not on a

        real page selected by its number.

updateDefaultStyle(family, options)

        Modifies the default style for the given family according to an

        options hash given by the application. The family is generally

        "paragraph" or "graphics".

        Options are given according to the style attributes


        The following example shows how to change the font, font size and

        default tab stops in the text:




                'fo:font-name'                  => 'Helvetica',

                'fo:font-size'                  => '10pt',

                'style:tab-stop-distance'       => '1.5cm'


updateOutlineStyle(level, properties)

updateOutlineStyle(outline style element, properties)

        Allows any change in the direct attributes of an outline style.


        The new properties must be provides through a hash, where each key

        is an OpenDocument-compliant attribute.


        The following example changes the numbering prefix and suffix, and

        the numbering format for the level 1 list elements, so their numbering

        will look like "[A] ", "[B] ", "[C] ", ...





                        'num-prefix'            => "[",

                        'num-suffix'            => "] ",

                        'num-format'            => "A"



        See the OpenDocument specification for the full set of possible

        attributes. Any attribute provided without namespace prefix (i.e.

        not including a ':'), such as those in the example above, are

        automatically prefixed by 'style:'; other attributes must be provided

        with their prefixes.


        Caution, some outline presentation characteristics, such as bullet

        style, are not directly under the control of this element. They depend

        on children "style:*-properties" elements.

updatePageLayout(page, options)

        Modifies all types of page presentation style characteristics (page

        master). The style given as the first argument can be either the

        appropriate page layout style directly, or a page style (master

        page) to which it refers.

        Options can be passed in the form of a hash of hashes (each option

        itself points to a hash containing the base attributes). The four

        top-level elements are as follows:

            references          => name, family, etc.

            properties          => global presentation attributes

            header              => header presentation style

            footer              => footer presentation style

            footnote-sep        => footnote separator style

            background-image    => backgrnd.jpg image characteristics

        The "references" branch will not generally be used unless you want

        to change the style's name.

        This data structure is the same as returned by

        getMasterPageAttributes(). A combination of these two methods allows

        you to copy the characteristics of one page style to another easily,

        especially when you want to apply the page setup of one document to

        another. When you only want to modify an existing style however, you

        only need to specify the attributes which you want to change.

        A "prototype" option allows you to clone the characteristics of an

        existing page layout. This option can indicate either an existing

        page layout reference, its logical name, or even the reference or

        logical name of a master page which refers to it. Only the first

        method is supported if the prototype page layout belongs to another

        document. The style name is not replaced by the prototype style

        name. See also createStyle about using a prototype style.

        The following example shows the code required to change several

        properties of the "Right page" style i.e. top margin width,

        background colour, maximum footnote height, minimum header height

        and the colour and width of the footnote separator.



                "Right page",

                properties      =>


                 'fo:margin-top'                => '2.5cm',

                 'fo:background-color           => '#88eecc',

                 'style:footnote-max-height'    => '3cm'


                'footnote-sep'  =>


                 'style:width'                  => '0.02cm',

                 'style:color'                  => '#0000ff'


                header          =>


                 'fo:min-height'                => '2cm'



        Once again, it is better to start with a getMasterPageAttributes()

        of an existing page than to create all your styles from code.

updatePageMaster(page, options)

        See updatePageLayout()

updateStyle(style, options)

        Modifies the characteristics of an existing style.

        Options are the same as for createStyle() except for "category",

        "namespace" and "type" which cannot be changed in an existing style

        since they form part of its basic identity. A style's logical name

        can, however, be changed.


        The first argument can be either a style name or a style element.

        The second way should be preferred when the program already owns

        the element (obtained, for example, through getStyleElement() or


        In the 'properties' structure, the 'area' switch is required with

        ODF (OOo 2) documents if the property area is not the default one

        (see styleProperties and createStyle about the 'area' option).

        You can use the "prototype" option to update a style with another

        style's characteristics, but this option does not replace the

        style's name with the prototype's name. Be careful, the "prototype"

        option doesn't work for any kind of style, and it's not recommended

        in this method. The best approach for replicating an existing style

        consists of creating a new style with the "prototype" option (see


        By definition, the style already exists and can be indicated equally

        well by reference or by name.

        Returns the characteristics of the modified style, as in


Exported functions

odfColor($red, $green, $blue) =head3 odfColor(``$red,$green,$blue'') =head3 odfColor($colorname)

        Converts an RGB or named colour in ODF-compliant hexadecimal format

        (6 digits after a leading '#'). The 1st form has the same effect as

        the rgb2hex() function of the Color::Rgb Perl module.

        The resulting value can be used to set any colour attribute in a


        In the first form, the 3 arguments are the conventional numeric RGB

        values (between 0 an 255). In the second form, the only one argument

        is a string containing 3 comma-separated RGB values. In the third

        form, the given string is the symbolic name of a colour (the name

        must be an existing one in the %COLORMAP hash).






                        'fo:color'              => odfColor('black'),

                        'fo:background-color'   => odfColor('yellow')



        If the argument seems to be already an hexadecimal RGB string (i.e.

        it begins by "#"), odfColor() checks it and returns it unchanged if

        it's a regular RGB value, or undef if not.

        Synonym: rgb2oo().


        Populates the %OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles::COLORMAP hash from the

        content of an RGB file. This file defines a colour dictionary.

        Without argument, the content of the $COLORMAP variable is considered

        as the filename.

        Each line must contain 4 space-separated fields. The 3 first fields

        represent, respectively, the red, green and blue values of a colour

        and must be positive integer values in the 0-255 range. The remainder

        of the line is considered as the symbolic name of a colour (it can

        contain spaces). Example:

                144 238 144     light green

                139   0 139     dark magenta

                255 105 180     hot pink

                255  99  71     tomato

        Such a file is sometimes provided in a system directory (for example

        /usr/lib/X11/rgb.txt in some Unix systems). In any case, the users

        can easily find and download it somewhere. For example, a convenient

        rgb.txt file is provided with the Color::Rgb Perl module (CPAN).

        When a COLORMAP is loaded, the programmer can provide symbolic, user-

        friendly names in place of RGB values to the odfColor() function.


        Without argument, the content of the $COLORMAP variable is considered

        as the filename.

        When the OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles module is loaded as a consequence

        of a "use OpenOffice::OODoc" statement, ooLoadColorMap() is

        automatically executed if a valid filename is provided in the

        <Styles-COLORMAP> element of the "OODoc/config.xml" file.


        Returns the conventional RGB value of an OOo-encoded colour.

        In array context, returns a 3-element array containing the red, green,

        blue decimal values of the colour.

        In scalar context, returns either a string with concatenated, comma

        separated red, green, blue values, or, if these values exactly match

        a known colour (according to the current %COLORMAP), the corresponding

        symbolic name.

        This function can be used to display or compute separately the RGB

        values of any colour attribute of a style, or to export these values

        to an image processing software. It produces the same result as the

        hex2rgb() method of the Color::Rgb Perl module.

rgb2oo($red, $green, $blue) =head3 rgb2oo(``$red,$green,$blue'') =head3 rgb2oo($colorname)

        See odfColor().


        Converts an ODF-color code into a decimal RGB code or, according

        to a mapping file, into a plain text conventional color name.

        See oo2rgb().


=head2  Properties

        The 'retrieve_by' option, set to 'display-name', can be provided

        in order to use the display name instead of the primary name as

        the first style identifier.

        The %COLORMAP hash, defined as a class variable, contains a name

        to RGB translation table. When loaded, it allows the rgb2oo() function

        to use symbolic names in place of RGB values.


        The keys are symbolic, user-defined colour names, and the values are

        strings containing the concatenated, comma-separated RGB values.


        %OpenOffice::OODoc::Styles::COLORMAP{'antique white'} = "250,235,215";

        By default, this hash contains a short, arbitrary set of colour

        definitions such as 'red', 'green', 'blue', 'white', 'black' and a few

        others. The user can populate it from an external RGB file, through

        the ooLoadColorMap() function previously described, and/or through

        program instructions like the example above.


Developer/Maintainer: Jean-Marie Gouarne


Copyright 2004-2006 by Genicorp, S.A.

Initial English version of the reference manual by Graeme A. Hunter (


        - Licence Publique Generale Genicorp v1.0

        - GNU Lesser General Public License v2.1