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/var/sites/help-site.com/auto/tmp/CPAN/9677/PDF-API2-0.68/lib/PDF/API2/Resource/XObject/Image/PNM.pm

/var/sites/help-site.com/auto/tmp/CPAN/9677/PDF-API2-0.68/lib/PDF/API2/Resource/XObject/Image/PNM.pm


$res = PDF::API2::Resource::XObject::Image::PNM->new $pdf, $file [, $name]
Returns a pnm-image object.

$res = PDF::API2::Resource::XObject::Image::PNM->new_api $api, $file [, $name]
Returns a pnm-image object. This method is different from 'new' that it needs an PDF::API2-object rather than a Text::PDF::File-object.


AUTHOR

alfred reibenschuh


HISTORY


    $Log: PNM.pm,v $

    Revision 2.1  2007/05/24 19:29:46  areibens

    fixed pnm bitmap decoding

    Revision 2.0  2005/11/16 02:18:23  areibens

    revision workaround for SF cvs import not to screw up CPAN

    Revision 1.2  2005/11/16 01:27:50  areibens

    genesis2

    Revision 1.1  2005/11/16 01:19:27  areibens

    genesis

    Revision 1.10  2005/06/17 19:44:04  fredo

    fixed CPAN modulefile versioning (again)

    Revision 1.9  2005/06/17 18:53:35  fredo

    fixed CPAN modulefile versioning (dislikes cvs)

    Revision 1.8  2005/03/14 22:01:31  fredo

    upd 2005

    Revision 1.7  2004/12/16 00:30:55  fredo

    added no warn for recursion

    Revision 1.6  2004/07/24 23:38:47  fredo

    added new headerparser and simplified loading

    Revision 1.5  2004/06/15 09:14:54  fredo

    removed cr+lf

    Revision 1.4  2004/06/07 19:44:44  fredo

    cleaned out cr+lf for lf

    Revision 1.3  2003/12/08 13:06:11  Administrator

    corrected to proper licencing statement

    Revision 1.2  2003/11/30 17:37:17  Administrator

    merged into default

    Revision 1.1.1.1.2.2  2003/11/30 16:57:10  Administrator

    merged into default

    Revision 1.1.1.1.2.1  2003/11/30 16:00:42  Administrator

    added CVS id/log



=cut

pam(5) pam(5) NAME pam - portable arbitrary map file format DESCRIPTION The PAM image format is a lowest common denominator 2 dimensional map format. It is designed to be used for any of myriad kinds of graphics, but can theoretically be used for any kind of data that is arranged as a two dimensional rectangular array. Actually, from another perspective it can be seen as a format for data arranged as a three dimensional array. This format does not define the meaning of the data at any particular point in the array. It could be red, green, and blue light intensities such that the array represents a visual image, or it could be the same red, green, and blue components plus a transparency component, or it could contain annual rainfalls for places on the surface of the Earth. Any process that uses the PAM format must further define the format to specify the meanings of the data. A PAM image describes a two dimensional grid of tuples. The tuples are arranged in rows and columns. The width of the image is the number of columns. The height of the image is the number of rows. All rows are the same width and all columns are the same height. The tuples may have any degree, but all tuples have the same degree. The degree of the tuples is called the depth of the image. Each member of a tuple is called a sample. A sample is an unsigned integer which represents a locus along a scale which starts at zero and ends at a certain maximum value greater than zero called the maxval. The maxval is the same for every sample in the image. The two dimensional array of all the Nth samples of each tuple is called the Nth plane or Nth channel of the image. Though the format does not assign any meaning to the tuple values, it does include an optional string that describes that meaning. The contents of this string, called the tuple type, are arbitrary from the point of view of the PAM format, but users of the format may assign meaning to it by convention so they can identify their particular implementations of the PAM format. The Layout A PAM file consists of a sequence of one or more PAM images. There are no data, delimiters, or padding before, after, or between images. Each PAM image consists of a header followed immediately by a raster. Here is an example header: P7 WIDTH 227 HEIGHT 149 DEPTH 3 MAXVAL 255 TUPLETYPE RGB ENDHDR The header begins with the ASCII characters ``P7'' followed by newline. This is the magic number. The header continues with an arbitrary number of lines of ASCII text. Each line ends with and is delimited by a newline character. Each header line consists of zero or more whitespace-delimited tokens or begins with ``#''. If it begins with ``#'' it is a comment and the rest of this specification does not apply to it. A header line which has zero tokens is valid but has no meaning. The type of header line is identified by its first token, which is 8 characters or less: 31 July 2000 355 pam(5) pam(5) ENDHDR This is the last line in the header. The header must contain exactly one of these header lines. HEIGHT The second token is a decimal number representing the height of the image (number of rows). The header must contain exactly one of these header lines. WIDTH The second token is a decimal number representing the width of the image (number of columns). The header must contain exactly one of these header lines. DEPTH The second token is a decimal number representing the depth of the image (number of planes or channels). The header must contain exactly one of these header lines. MAXVAL The second token is a decimal number representing the maxval of the image. The header must contain exactly one of these header lines. TUPLTYPE The header may contain any number of these header lines, including zero. The rest of the line is part of the tuple type. The rest of the line is not tokenized, but the tuple type does not include any white space immediately following TUPLTYPE or at the very end of the line. It does not include a newline. If there are multiple TUPLTYPE header lines, the tuple type is the concatenation of the values from each of them, separated by a single blank, in the order in which they appear in the header. If there are no TUPLETYPE header lines the tuple type is the null string. The raster consists of each row of the image, in order from top to bottom, consecutive with no delimiter of any kind between, before, or after, rows. Each row consists of every tuple in the row, in order from left to right, consecutive with no delimiter of any kind between, before, or after, tuples. Each tuple consists of every sample in the tuple, in order, consecutive with no delimiter of any kind between, before, or after, samples. Each sample consists of an unsigned integer in pure binary format, with the most significant byte first. The number of bytes is the minimum number of bytes required to represent the maxval of the image. PAMUsed For PNM (PBM, PGM, or PPM) Images A common use of PAM images is to represent the older and more concrete PBM, PGM, and PPM images. A PBM image is conventionally represented as a PAM image of depth 1 with maxval 1 where the one sample in each tuple is 0 to represent a black pixel and 1 to represent a white one. The height, width, and raster bear the obvious relationship to those of the PBM image. The tuple type for PBM images represented as PAM images is conventionally ``BLACKANDWHITE''. A PGM image is conventionally represented as a PAM image of depth 1. The maxval, height, width, and raster bear the obvious relationship to those of the PGM image. The tuple type for PGM images represented as PAM images is conventionally ``GRAYSCALE''. A PPM image is conventionally represented as a PAM image of depth 3. The maxval, height, width, 356 31July 2000 pam(5) pam(5) and raster bear the obvious relationship to those of the PPM image. The first plane represents red, the second blue, and the third green. The tuple type for PPM images represented as PAM images is conventionally ``RGB''. The Confusing Universe of Netpbm Formats It is easy to get confused about the relationship between the PAM format and PBM, PGM, PPM, and PNM. Here is a little enlightenment: ``PNM'' is not really a format. It is a shorthand for the PBM, PGM, and PPM formats collectively. It is also the name of a group of library functions that can each handle all three of those formats. ``PAM'' is in fact a fourth format. But it is so general that you can represent the same information in a PAM image as you can in a PBM, PGM, or PPM image. And in fact a program that is designed to read PBM, PGM, or PPM and does so with a recent version of the Netpbm library, will read an equivalent PAM image just fine and the program will never know the difference. To confuse things more, there is a collection of library routines called the ``pam'' functions that read and write the PAM format, but also read and write the PBM, PGM, and PPM formats. They do this because the latter formats are much older and more popular, so this makes it convenient to write programs that use the newer PAM format. SEE ALSO pbm(5), pgm(5), ppm(5), pnm(5), libpnm(3).THpbm505 March 2000 NAME pbm - portable bitmap file format DESCRIPTION The portable bitmap format is a lowest common denominator monochrome file format. It serves as the common language of a large family of bitmap conversion filters. Because the format pays no heed to efficiency, it is simple and general enough that one can easily develop programs to convert to and from just about any other graphics format, or to manipulate the image. This is not a format that one would normally use to store a file or to transmit it to someone -- it’s too expensive and not expressive enough for that. It’s just an intermediary format. In it’s purest use, it lives only in a pipe between two other programs. The format definition is as follows. A PBM file consists of a sequence of one or more PBM images. There are no data, delimiters, or padding before, after, or between images. Each PBM image consists of the following: - A``magic number'' for identifying the file type. A pbm image’s magic number is the two characters ``P4''. - Whitespace (blanks, TABs, CRs, LFs). - The width in pixels of the image, formatted as ASCII characters in decimal. - Whitespace. - The height in pixels of the image, again in ASCII decimal. - Newline or other single whitespace character. - A raster of Height rows, in order from top to bottom. Each row is Width bits, packed 8 to a byte, with don’t care bits to fill out the last byte in the row. Each bit represents a pixel: 1 is black, 0 is white. The order of the pixels is left to right. The order of their storage within each file byte is most significant bit to least significant bit. The order of the file bytes is from the beginning of the file toward the end of the file. - Characters from a ``#'' to the next end-of-line, before the width/height line, are comments and are ignored. There is actually another version of the PBM format, even more more simplistic, more lavishly 31 July 2000 357 pam(5) pam(5) wasteful of space than PBM, called Plain PBM. Plain PBM actually came first, but even its inventor couldn’t stand its recklessly squanderous use of resources after a while and switched to what we now know as the regular PBM format. But Plain PBM is so redundant -- so overstated -- that it’s virtually impossible to break. You can send it through the most liberal mail system (which was the original purpose of the PBM format) and it will arrive still readable. You can flip a dozen random bits and easily piece back together the original image. And we hardly need to define the format here, because you can decode it by inspection. The difference is: - There is exactly one image in a file. - The ``magic number'' is ``P1'' instead of ``P4''. - Each pixel in the raster is represented by a byte containing ASCII ’1’ or ’0’, representing black and white respectively. There are no fill bits at the end of a row. - White space in the raster section is ignored. - You can put any junk you want after the raster, if it starts with a white space character. - No line should be longer than 70 characters. Here is an example of a small bitmap in the plain PBM format: P1 # feep.pbm 24 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 You can generate the Plain PBM format from the regular PBM format (first image in the file only) with the pnmtoplainpnm program. Programs that read this format should be as lenient as possible, accepting anything that looks remotely like a bitmap. COMPATIBILITY Before July 2000, there could be at most one image in a PBM file. As a result, most tools to process PBM files ignore (and don’t read) any data after the first image. SEE ALSO libpbm(3),pnm(5),pgm(5),ppm(5) AUTHOR Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer. 358 31July 2000 pgm(5) pgm(5) NAME pgm - portable graymap file format DESCRIPTION The PGM format is a lowest common denominator grayscale file format. It is designed to be extremely easy to learn and write programs for. (It’s so simple that most people will simply reverse engineer it because it’s easier than reading this specification). A PGM image represents a grayscale graphic image. There are many psueudo-PGM formats in use where everything is as specified herein except for the meaning of individual pixel values. For most purposes, a PGM image can just be thought of an array of arbitrary integers, and all the programs in the world that think they’re processing a grayscale image can easily be tricked into processing something else. One official variant of PGM is the transparency mask. A transparency mask in Netpbm is represented by a PGM image, except that in place of pixel intensities, there are opaqueness values. See below. The format definition is as follows. A PGM file consists of a sequence of one or more PGM images. There are no data, delimiters, or padding before, after, or between images. Each PGM image consists of the following: - A``magic number'' for identifying the file type. A pgm image’s magic number is the two characters ``P5''. - Whitespace (blanks, TABs, CRs, LFs). - Awidth, formatted as ASCII characters in decimal. - Whitespace. - Aheight, again in ASCII decimal. - Whitespace. - The maximum gray value (Maxval), again in ASCII decimal. Must be less than 65536. - Newline or other single whitespace character. - A raster of Width * Height gray values, proceeding through the image in normal English reading order. Each gray value is a number from 0 through Maxval, with 0 being black and Maxval being white. Each gray value is represented in pure binary by either 1 or 2 bytes. If the Maxval is less than 256, it is 1 byte. Otherwise, it is 2 bytes. The most significant byte is first. - Each gray value is a number proportional to the intensity of the pixel, adjusted by the CIE Rec. 709 gamma transfer function. (That transfer function specifies a gamma number of 2.2 and has a linear section for small intensities). A value of zero is therefore black. A value of Maxval represents CIE D65 white and the most intense value in the image and any other image to which the image might be compared. - Note that a common variation on the PGM format is to have the gray value be ``linear,'' i.e. as speci- fied above except without the gamma adjustment. pnmgamma takes such a PGM variant as input and produces a true PGM as output. - In the transparency mask variation on PGM, the value represents opaqueness. It is proportional to the fraction of intensity of a pixel that would show in place of an underlying pixel, with the same gamma transfer function mentioned above applied. So what normally means white represents total opaqueness and what normally means black represents total transparency. In between, you would compute the intensity of a composite pixel of an ``under'' and ``over'' pixel as under * (1-(alpha/alpha_maxval)) + over * (alpha/alpha_maxval).< - Characters from a ``#'' to the next end-of-line, before the maxval line, are comments and are ignored. Note that you can use pnmdepth To convert between a the format with 1 byte per gray value and the one with 2 bytes per gray value. 12 November 1991 359 pgm(5) pgm(5) There is actually another version of the PGM format that is fairly rare: ``plain'' PGM format. The format above, which generally considered the normal one, is known as the ``raw'' PGM format. See pbm(5) for some commentary on how plain and raw formats relate to one another. The difference in the plain format is: - There is exactly one image in a file. - The magic number is P2 instead of P5. - Each pixel in the raster is represented as an ASCII decimal number (of arbitrary size). - Each pixel in the raster has white space before and after it. There must be at least one character of white space between any two pixels, but there is no maximum. - No line should be longer than 70 characters. Here is an example of a small graymap in this format: P2 # feep.pgm 24 7 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 3 3 3 0 0 7 7 7 7 0 0 11 11 11 11 0 0 15 15 15 15 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 15 0 0 3 3 3 0 0 0 7 7 7 0 0 0 11 11 11 0 0 0 15 15 15 15 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 7 7 7 7 0 0 11 11 11 11 0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Programs that read this format should be as lenient as possible, accepting anything that looks remotely like a graymap. COMPATIBILITY Before April 2000, a raw format PGM file could not have a maxval greater than 255. Hence, it could not have more than one byte per sample. Old programs may depend on this. Before July 2000, there could be at most one image in a PGM file. As a result, most tools to process PGM files ignore (and don’t read) any data after the first image. SEE ALSO fitstopgm(1), fstopgm(1), hipstopgm(1), lispmtopgm(1), psidtopgm(1), rawtopgm(1), pgmbentley(1), pgmcrater(1), pgmedge(1), pgmenhance(1), pgmhist(1), pgmnorm(1), pgmoil(1), pgmramp(1), pgmtexture( 1), pgmtofits(1), pgmtofs(1), pgmtolispm(1), pgmtopbm(1), pnm(5), pbm(5), ppm(5) AUTHOR Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer. 360 12November 1991 pnm(5) pnm(5) NAME pnm - portable anymap file format DESCRIPTION The pnm programs operate on portable bitmaps, graymaps, and pixmaps, produced by the pbm, pgm, and ppm segments. There is no file format associated with pnm itself. SEE ALSO anytopnm(1), rasttopnm(1), tifftopnm(1), xwdtopnm(1), pnmtops(1), pnmtorast(1), pnmtotiff(1), pnmtoxwd( 1), pnmarith(1), pnmcat(1), pnmconvol(1), pnmcrop(1), pnmcut(1), pnmdepth(1), pnmenlarge( 1), pnmfile(1), pnmflip(1), pnmgamma(1), pnmindex(1), pnminvert(1), pnmmargin(1), pnmnoraw( 1), pnmpaste(1), pnmrotate(1), pnmscale(1), pnmshear(1), pnmsmooth(1), pnmtile(1), ppm(5), pgm(5), pbm(5) AUTHOR Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer. 27 September 1991 361 ppm(5) ppm(5) NAME ppm - portable pixmap file format DESCRIPTION The portable pixmap format is a lowest common denominator color image file format. It should be noted that this format is egregiously inefficient. It is highly redundant, while containing a lot of information that the human eye can’t even discern. Furthermore, the format allows very little information about the image besides basic color, which means you may have to couple a file in this format with other independent information to get any decent use out of it. However, it is very easy to write and analyze programs to process this format, and that is the point. It should also be noted that files often conform to this format in every respect except the precise semantics of the sample values. These files are useful because of the way PPM is used as an intermediary format. They are informally called PPM files, but to be absolutely precise, you should indicate the variation from true PPM. For example, ``PPM using the red, green, and blue colors that the scanner in question uses.'' The format definition is as follows. A PPM file consists of a sequence of one or more PPM images. There are no data, delimiters, or padding before, after, or between images. Each PPM image consists of the following: - A``magic number'' for identifying the file type. A ppm image’s magic number is the two characters ``P6''. - Whitespace (blanks, TABs, CRs, LFs). - Awidth, formatted as ASCII characters in decimal. - Whitespace. - Aheight, again in ASCII decimal. - Whitespace. - The maximum color value (Maxval), again in ASCII decimal. Must be less than 65536. - Newline or other single whitespace character. - A raster of Width * Height pixels, proceeding through the image in normal English reading order. Each pixel is a triplet of red, green, and blue samples, in that order. Each sample is represented in pure binary by either 1 or 2 bytes. If the Maxval is less than 256, it is 1 byte. Otherwise, it is 2 bytes. The most significant byte is first. - In the raster, the sample values are ``nonlinear.'' They are proportional to the intensity of the CIE Rec. 709 red, green, and blue in the pixel, adjusted by the CIE Rec. 709 gamma transfer function. (That transfer function specifies a gamma number of 2.2 and has a linear section for small intensities). A value of Maxval for all three samples represents CIE D65 white and the most intense color in the color universe of which the image is part (the color universe is all the colors in all images to which this image might be compared). - Note that a common variation on the PPM format is to have the sample values be ``linear,'' i.e. as specified above except without the gamma adjustment. pnmgamma takes such a PPM variant as input and produces a true PPM as output. - Characters from a ``#'' to the next end-of-line, before the maxval line, are comments and are ignored. Note that you can use pnmdepth to convert between a the format with 1 byte per sample and the one with 2 bytes per sample. There is actually another version of the PPM format that is fairly rare: ``plain'' PPM format. The format above, which generally considered the normal one, is known as the ``raw'' PPM format. See pbm(5) for some commentary on how plain and raw formats relate to one another. The difference in the plain format is: 362 08April 2000 ppm(5) ppm(5) - There is exactly one image in a file. - The magic number is P3 instead of P6. - Each sample in the raster is represented as an ASCII decimal number (of arbitrary size). - Each sample in the raster has white space before and after it. There must be at least one character of white space between any two samples, but there is no maximum. There is no particular separation of one pixel from another -- just the required separation between the blue sample of one pixel from the red sample of the next pixel. - No line should be longer than 70 characters. Here is an example of a small pixmap in this format: P3 # feep.ppm 4 4 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 0 15 0 0 0 0 15 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 7 0 0 0 15 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Programs that read this format should be as lenient as possible, accepting anything that looks remotely like a pixmap. COMPATIBILITY Before April 2000, a raw format PPM file could not have a maxval greater than 255. Hence, it could not have more than one byte per sample. Old programs may depend on this. Before July 2000, there could be at most one image in a PPM file. As a result, most tools to process PPM files ignore (and don’t read) any data after the first image. SEE ALSO giftopnm(1), gouldtoppm(1), ilbmtoppm(1), imgtoppm(1), mtvtoppm(1), pcxtoppm(1), pgmtoppm(1), pi1toppm(1), picttoppm(1), pjtoppm(1), qrttoppm(1), rawtoppm(1), rgb3toppm(1), sldtoppm(1), spctoppm( 1), sputoppm(1), tgatoppm(1), ximtoppm(1), xpmtoppm(1), yuvtoppm(1), ppmtoacad(1), ppmtogif( 1), ppmtoicr(1), ppmtoilbm(1), ppmtopcx(1), ppmtopgm(1), ppmtopi1(1), ppmtopict(1), ppmtopj( 1), ppmtopuzz(1), ppmtorgb3(1), ppmtosixel(1), ppmtotga(1), ppmtouil(1), ppmtoxpm(1), ppmtoyuv( 1), ppmdither(1), ppmforge(1), ppmhist(1), ppmmake(1), ppmpat(1), ppmquant(1), ppmquantall( 1), ppmrelief(1), pnm(5), pgm(5), pbm(5) AUTHOR Copyright (C) 1989, 1991 by Jef Poskanzer.

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